The Science of DNA

The EBKC offers a comprehensive set of voluntary and mandatory programs to ensure the integrity of the EBKC registry: voluntary DNA Profiling; the Frequently Used Sires requirement; the Fresh-Extended/Frozen Semen requirement; the Multiple-Sired Litter Registration Policy; the Import Breeding Stock requirement; and the Kennel Inspections/Compliance Audit Program. The EBKC has one of the world’s largest databases of Bull Breed DNA profiles for parentage verification and genetic identity purposes. If unknown parentage is indicated via DNA testing, the registration status will be downgraded to “conditional” until a three-generation pedigree is established.

The Science Behind DNA Profiles

EBKC DNA Profiles are generated using the same technology used by forensic agencies throughout the world. How does this work? In humans and dogs alike, each gene is present as two copies (displayed as letters). Offspring receive one copy of each gene from each parent in a random process.

This technology does not use actual genes, but other DNA sequences that are also inherited one copy from each parent. For this reason, your dog’s EBKC DNA Profile does not provide any information about the conformation of the dog or the presence/absence of genetic diseases.

Voluntary DNA Profiles

This voluntary program has resulted from significant input from the fancy. The DNA Profile Program is for owners and breeders electing to add value to their breeding programs by eliminating concerns or questions about identification and parentage.

A dog owner may contact EBKC for a DNA Test Kit which includes a swab that the owner uses to collect loose cells from inside the dog’s cheek. An EBKC DNA Profile containing the dog’s registration information, genotype, and unique DNA Profile number is issued for each dog sampled. This DNA Profile number will appear on subsequently issued Registration Certificates and Pedigrees.

DNA Requirements

EBKC DNA Profiling is required for: Frequently Used Sires (dogs having the greatest impact on the EBKC Stud Book); imported breeding stock; dogs whose semen is collected for fresh-extended or frozen use; and for the sires, dam and puppies for Multiple-Sired Litter Registration.

If unknown parentage is indicated via DNA testing, the registration status will be downgraded to “conditional” until a three-generation pedigree is established.

Kennel Inspections/Compliance Audit Program

EBKC Representatives take DNA samples at randomly selected kennels to verify the identification and parentage of litters. EBKC litter registration and privileges will be withdrawn when the parentage of the litter is determined to be incorrect. The dogs sampled through the Compliance Audit Program are not considered EBKC DNA Profiled, and DNA Profiles are not issued.

The EBKC DNA Database and Parentage Verification

Comparison of the DNA profiles of a dam, sire, and pup(s) will determine, with greater than 99% confidence, whether the pups are from the tested dam and sire. The EBKC DNA database examines the parentage of all EBKC DNA Profiled registered dogs and litters whelped on or after January 1, 2008. When problems are discovered, the EBKC staff works with breeders to determine the correct parentage at the breeder’s expense.

EBKC Parentage Testing Service

For a fee, an EBKC DNA Analyst will issue a Parentage Evaluation of a litter in the form of an easy-to-read table listing each dog’s genotype and a written report.

Parentage Evaluation can be used to ensure accuracy when breeding has been done offsite, for cases of artificial insemination, or to add an extra measure of confidence to your pedigrees.

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